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Free Shutter Speed and Aperture Relationship Chart


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#1 DigitalDarrell

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Posted 21 November 2009 - 03:39 PM

I developed a shutter speed and aperture relationship chart for readers of my books. I wanted any members here who might need it to have a free copy (PDF download):

http://www.youngimag...rSpeedChart.pdf

Here are instructions on usage (Excerpt from Mastering the Nikon D3000):

Aperture and Shutter Speed Chart

In figure 4A you'll find an Aperture & Shutter Speed Equivalency Chart for your use in figuring out how the relationships we've discussed above work, but in a more visual way.

Attached File  Figure4A-800px.jpg   67.99KB   35 downloads
Figure 4A - Aperture and Shutter Speed Equivalency Chart

To use the chart you simply select a certain aperture and shutter speed combination. For instance, let's use 1/15s at f/5.6. Notice on the chart the orange-colored f/stops run from f/1.4 to f/22. Put your finger over on the f/5.6 position (5.6). Just below there you'll see the shutter speed of 1/15s (15). Put your finger on the shutter speed of 15. Move it to the left one space to 30 or 1/30s. You'll notice that above the 30 is an orange 4. The 4 represents f/4. Now this is important—f5.6 at 1/15s is exactly the same exposure as f/4 at 1/30s.

If you follow this out to the end of the chart, you'll see that f/5.6 at 1/15s is equal to f/8 at 1/8s. Also, f/11 at 1/4s is also equal to f/5.6 at 1/15s. Any of the numbers along the top (f/stops) of the chart matched with the number below (shutter speed) is exactly the same exposure. To make this clearer, I am going to list several exposures that are exactly the same, and bring the same amount of light into the camera:

  • 1/250s at f/1.4
  • 1/125s at f/2
  • 1/60s at f/2.8
  • 1/30s at f/4
As long as you keep your finger in the same row of shutter speeds, the aperture's above will give you an equivalent exposure. Let's switch to a new row of shutter speeds. Find the f/5.6 f/stop and look down the column until you find 1/125s (125). Using the same logic as before, here are more exposures that provide exactly the same amount of light to the camera's sensor:

  • 1/125s at f/5.6
  • 1/250s at f/4
  • 1/500s at f/2.8
  • 1/1000s at f/2
If you play with this chart for a while, you will begin to see how flexible your camera is in giving you so many choices of apertures and shutter speeds. Now you can choose just the right aperture for the best Depth of Field in your image. Or, you can choose just the right shutter speed to stop action or allow blurred movement in your picture.

By using this chart and exercising your new knowledge while taking pictures, you'll soon become comfortable with the ideas expressed in this chapter. You'll have control of your camera in its manual modes, and much finer control over how your images "turn out." In fact, no one will be able to say, "That one turned out well." You'll be able to look at them and say, "It didn't just turn out that way, I did it on purpose!"
Best regards,
Darrell Young (Digital Darrell)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"Better too many words than not enough understanding." - Darrell Young
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bodies
: Nikon D810, D800, D600, D2X, COOLPIX A, D100, F80, FM, EM, Olympus OM-D E-M1, Olympus OM-D E-M10
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lenses
: AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8G ED, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G Special Edition (for Df), AF-S Nikkor 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR (x2), AF-S Nikkor DX 16-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR, AF Nikkor 80-400 f/4.5-5.6D ED VR, AF Micro Nikkor 60mm f/2.8, AF-S Nikkor 24-120mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF-S Nikkor 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF Nikkor 24mm f/2.8D, AI Nikkor 35mm f/2, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8 Series E, AI Nikkor 105mm f/2.5, AI Nikkor 200mm f/4, Non-AI Nikkor-S 50mm f/1.4, Sigma 10-20mm EX f/3.5-5.6, M.Zuiko 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 lens, M.Zuiko PRO 12-40mm f/2.8 ED
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accessories:
Nikon SB-900 Speedlight, Nikon GP-1 GPS, Nikon ME-1 Microphone, Eye-Fi Wireless Cards, Atomos Ninja-2 External HDMI Video Recorder, Atomos Samurai Blade External Video Recorder,Manfrotto Tripods, Markins M-10 Ballhead, Lots of camera bags, Metz 24 AF-1 Flash, Olympus FL-600R Flash, Olympus HLD-7 Battery Grip
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#2 Waterfowler

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Posted 21 November 2009 - 11:11 PM

Thanks DD for the chart. I going print this out and keep it in my camera bag.
Mark Shartle

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#3 José

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Posted 22 November 2009 - 06:30 PM

Thanks Darrell, this is a great reference tool.
José

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#4 hatmpita

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Posted 22 January 2010 - 12:37 PM

Thanks DD. I have printed this chart and it will find it's way into my camera bag for future reference. Great tool! Harry
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#5 nobby

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Posted 22 January 2010 - 03:05 PM

Thanks Darrell this will come in very useful:)
http://www.flickr.co...os/nobbystyles/



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#6 Sailjunkie

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Posted 23 January 2010 - 12:53 AM

Thanks, DD! I didn't join until after you posted this, but I noticed it while I was on-line during my lunch break. Tonight, I saved a PDF copy and also printed a hard copy for my camera bag. Mark
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#7 Mrs_Animal

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Posted 10 May 2010 - 12:11 AM

Thanks from me as well, Darrell. I found something similar in spreadsheet format earlier today...but when I tried following the link, it went to nikonians.org which Hugo told me had turned to a pay site...so no accessing that info for me! Needless to say I was a wee bit choked. So it was a very nice surprise to find this here. :D

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#8 photojazz

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Posted 10 May 2010 - 01:32 AM

Thanks DD..Printed and stored in the photo bag.

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#9 DigitalDarrell

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Posted 10 May 2010 - 09:51 AM

I'm glad this is useful to you. I'm putting this chart in all my books, these days.
Best regards,
Darrell Young (Digital Darrell)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"Better too many words than not enough understanding." - Darrell Young
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bodies
: Nikon D810, D800, D600, D2X, COOLPIX A, D100, F80, FM, EM, Olympus OM-D E-M1, Olympus OM-D E-M10
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lenses
: AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8G ED, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G Special Edition (for Df), AF-S Nikkor 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR (x2), AF-S Nikkor DX 16-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR, AF Nikkor 80-400 f/4.5-5.6D ED VR, AF Micro Nikkor 60mm f/2.8, AF-S Nikkor 24-120mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF-S Nikkor 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF Nikkor 24mm f/2.8D, AI Nikkor 35mm f/2, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8 Series E, AI Nikkor 105mm f/2.5, AI Nikkor 200mm f/4, Non-AI Nikkor-S 50mm f/1.4, Sigma 10-20mm EX f/3.5-5.6, M.Zuiko 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 lens, M.Zuiko PRO 12-40mm f/2.8 ED
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accessories:
Nikon SB-900 Speedlight, Nikon GP-1 GPS, Nikon ME-1 Microphone, Eye-Fi Wireless Cards, Atomos Ninja-2 External HDMI Video Recorder, Atomos Samurai Blade External Video Recorder,Manfrotto Tripods, Markins M-10 Ballhead, Lots of camera bags, Metz 24 AF-1 Flash, Olympus FL-600R Flash, Olympus HLD-7 Battery Grip
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Member of:

Nikon Professional Services (NPS), Professional Photographers of America (PPA), North American Nature Photography Association (NANPA), Founding Member of Nikonians Writers' Guild (www.Nikonians.org)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#10 Nikon Mike

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Posted 10 May 2010 - 04:22 PM

Thanks DD. As soon as my wallet quits smoking from the D90 purchase I am going to order your D90 book. I am looking forward to reading it.
Mike

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#11 Black Pearl

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Posted 10 May 2010 - 04:36 PM

Thanks DD - I wear one of these when ever I can. Makes me smile and you get the best sort of odd looks from people who sometimes have to ask "Why is your T-Shirt printed upsidedown?"

Sharpness is a bourgeois concept


#12 mickjw

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Posted 16 May 2010 - 06:42 PM

thanks this should com in very handy iv downloaded to my mobile so i can look at it anytime cheers
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#13 Dave Whiteley

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Posted 17 May 2010 - 05:36 AM

Bit like nurses watches BP. People used to ask them why their watch was hanging upside down! http://www.argos.co....es|14416987.htm Dave Whiteley
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#14 mark2711

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Posted 03 September 2010 - 09:11 PM

Is this chart applicable for D300?

I developed a shutter speed and aperture relationship chart for readers of my books. I wanted any members here who might need it to have a free copy (PDF download):

http://www.youngimag...rSpeedChart.pdf

Here are instructions on usage (Excerpt from Mastering the Nikon D3000):

Aperture and Shutter Speed Chart

In figure 4A you'll find an Aperture & Shutter Speed Equivalency Chart for your use in figuring out how the relationships we've discussed above work, but in a more visual way.

Attached File  Figure4A-800px.jpg   67.99KB   35 downloads
Figure 4A - Aperture and Shutter Speed Equivalency Chart

To use the chart you simply select a certain aperture and shutter speed combination. For instance, let's use 1/15s at f/5.6. Notice on the chart the orange-colored f/stops run from f/1.4 to f/22. Put your finger over on the f/5.6 position (5.6). Just below there you'll see the shutter speed of 1/15s (15). Put your finger on the shutter speed of 15. Move it to the left one space to 30 or 1/30s. You'll notice that above the 30 is an orange 4. The 4 represents f/4. Now this is important—f5.6 at 1/15s is exactly the same exposure as f/4 at 1/30s.

If you follow this out to the end of the chart, you'll see that f/5.6 at 1/15s is equal to f/8 at 1/8s. Also, f/11 at 1/4s is also equal to f/5.6 at 1/15s. Any of the numbers along the top (f/stops) of the chart matched with the number below (shutter speed) is exactly the same exposure. To make this clearer, I am going to list several exposures that are exactly the same, and bring the same amount of light into the camera:

  • 1/250s at f/1.4
  • 1/125s at f/2
  • 1/60s at f/2.8
  • 1/30s at f/4
As long as you keep your finger in the same row of shutter speeds, the aperture's above will give you an equivalent exposure. Let's switch to a new row of shutter speeds. Find the f/5.6 f/stop and look down the column until you find 1/125s (125). Using the same logic as before, here are more exposures that provide exactly the same amount of light to the camera's sensor:

  • 1/125s at f/5.6
  • 1/250s at f/4
  • 1/500s at f/2.8
  • 1/1000s at f/2
If you play with this chart for a while, you will begin to see how flexible your camera is in giving you so many choices of apertures and shutter speeds. Now you can choose just the right aperture for the best Depth of Field in your image. Or, you can choose just the right shutter speed to stop action or allow blurred movement in your picture.

By using this chart and exercising your new knowledge while taking pictures, you'll soon become comfortable with the ideas expressed in this chapter. You'll have control of your camera in its manual modes, and much finer control over how your images "turn out." In fact, no one will be able to say, "That one turned out well." You'll be able to look at them and say, "It didn't just turn out that way, I did it on purpose!"


Mark Rhind

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#15 DigitalDarrell

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Posted 03 September 2010 - 09:53 PM

Is this chart applicable for D300?



Yes Mark.

This is a basic exposure relationship chart that is valid with virtually any camera, film, digital, or otherwise.
Best regards,
Darrell Young (Digital Darrell)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"Better too many words than not enough understanding." - Darrell Young
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bodies
: Nikon D810, D800, D600, D2X, COOLPIX A, D100, F80, FM, EM, Olympus OM-D E-M1, Olympus OM-D E-M10
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lenses
: AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8G ED, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G Special Edition (for Df), AF-S Nikkor 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR (x2), AF-S Nikkor DX 16-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR, AF Nikkor 80-400 f/4.5-5.6D ED VR, AF Micro Nikkor 60mm f/2.8, AF-S Nikkor 24-120mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF-S Nikkor 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF Nikkor 24mm f/2.8D, AI Nikkor 35mm f/2, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8 Series E, AI Nikkor 105mm f/2.5, AI Nikkor 200mm f/4, Non-AI Nikkor-S 50mm f/1.4, Sigma 10-20mm EX f/3.5-5.6, M.Zuiko 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 lens, M.Zuiko PRO 12-40mm f/2.8 ED
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accessories:
Nikon SB-900 Speedlight, Nikon GP-1 GPS, Nikon ME-1 Microphone, Eye-Fi Wireless Cards, Atomos Ninja-2 External HDMI Video Recorder, Atomos Samurai Blade External Video Recorder,Manfrotto Tripods, Markins M-10 Ballhead, Lots of camera bags, Metz 24 AF-1 Flash, Olympus FL-600R Flash, Olympus HLD-7 Battery Grip
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Member of:

Nikon Professional Services (NPS), Professional Photographers of America (PPA), North American Nature Photography Association (NANPA), Founding Member of Nikonians Writers' Guild (www.Nikonians.org)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#16 PraVin

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Posted 11 February 2011 - 01:29 AM

Thank you so much DD for your aperture chart, however I wolud like to know if the chart holds good irrespective of the ISO selected. Thanks aagain PraVin
Thank You & Kind Regards

Pravin

#17 DigitalDarrell

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Posted 11 February 2011 - 01:53 AM

Thank you so much DD for your aperture chart, however I wolud like to know if the chart holds good irrespective of the ISO selected.

Thanks aagain

PraVin


Yes, PraVin,

The chart describes the relationship between Aperture and Shutter Speed. The sensitivity of the imaging media (ISO) affects the initial exposure by giving you a metered starting place for a correct exposure. If you switch to manual mode, you can then use this chart to get equivalent exposures by adjusting both shutter speed and aperture accordingly.
Best regards,
Darrell Young (Digital Darrell)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"Better too many words than not enough understanding." - Darrell Young
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bodies
: Nikon D810, D800, D600, D2X, COOLPIX A, D100, F80, FM, EM, Olympus OM-D E-M1, Olympus OM-D E-M10
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lenses
: AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8G ED, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G Special Edition (for Df), AF-S Nikkor 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR (x2), AF-S Nikkor DX 16-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR, AF Nikkor 80-400 f/4.5-5.6D ED VR, AF Micro Nikkor 60mm f/2.8, AF-S Nikkor 24-120mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF-S Nikkor 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF Nikkor 24mm f/2.8D, AI Nikkor 35mm f/2, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8 Series E, AI Nikkor 105mm f/2.5, AI Nikkor 200mm f/4, Non-AI Nikkor-S 50mm f/1.4, Sigma 10-20mm EX f/3.5-5.6, M.Zuiko 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 lens, M.Zuiko PRO 12-40mm f/2.8 ED
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accessories:
Nikon SB-900 Speedlight, Nikon GP-1 GPS, Nikon ME-1 Microphone, Eye-Fi Wireless Cards, Atomos Ninja-2 External HDMI Video Recorder, Atomos Samurai Blade External Video Recorder,Manfrotto Tripods, Markins M-10 Ballhead, Lots of camera bags, Metz 24 AF-1 Flash, Olympus FL-600R Flash, Olympus HLD-7 Battery Grip
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Member of:

Nikon Professional Services (NPS), Professional Photographers of America (PPA), North American Nature Photography Association (NANPA), Founding Member of Nikonians Writers' Guild (www.Nikonians.org)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

#18 PraVin

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Posted 11 February 2011 - 02:05 AM

Dear DD. Thank you so much for your very clear reply but does the DOF of any two equivalent remain same, say for e.g f4 @30s and f11 @ 4s. By the way Darell, I have purchased a Kindle version of Mastering D90, indeeed a bible. Your topic on Histogram is a marvel. Surely there'll be lot of questions once I'm through. Thank you so much Pravin
Thank You & Kind Regards

Pravin

#19 DigitalDarrell

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Posted 11 February 2011 - 09:58 AM

Dear DD.

Thank you so much for your very clear reply but does the DOF of any two equivalent remain same, say for e.g f4 @30s and f11 @ 4s.

By the way Darell, I have purchased a Kindle version of Mastering D90, indeeed a bible. Your topic on Histogram is a marvel. Surely there'll be lot of questions once I'm through.

Thank you so much

Pravin


Pravin,

No, the depth of field does not remain equivalent when you vary the aperture, only the exposure remains equivalent when you change the aperture and shutter speed to match.

The reason for this chart's existence is to allow you to choose a certain aperture to control depth of field or a certain shutter speed to control subject movement. Then you adjust the other to match, according to the chart.

Small apertures give you greater depth of field. Large apertures give you less.

Slow shutter speeds can't stop movement, fast shutter speed can.

It is a trade off. You are balancing your need for enough depth of field to fully cover your subject (with sharpness) and enough shutter speed to stop subject movement.

Mastering the Nikon D90 has an entire section devoted to this subject. It is in the chapter called Aperture and Shutter Speed.
Best regards,
Darrell Young (Digital Darrell)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
"Better too many words than not enough understanding." - Darrell Young
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bodies
: Nikon D810, D800, D600, D2X, COOLPIX A, D100, F80, FM, EM, Olympus OM-D E-M1, Olympus OM-D E-M10
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Lenses
: AF-S Nikkor 24-70mm f/2.8G ED, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.4G, AF-S Nikkor 50mm f/1.8G Special Edition (for Df), AF-S Nikkor 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR (x2), AF-S Nikkor DX 16-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR, AF Nikkor 80-400 f/4.5-5.6D ED VR, AF Micro Nikkor 60mm f/2.8, AF-S Nikkor 24-120mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF-S Nikkor 18-105mm f/3.5-5.6G ED VR, AF Nikkor 24mm f/2.8D, AI Nikkor 35mm f/2, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8, AI Nikkor 50mm 5/1.8 Series E, AI Nikkor 105mm f/2.5, AI Nikkor 200mm f/4, Non-AI Nikkor-S 50mm f/1.4, Sigma 10-20mm EX f/3.5-5.6, M.Zuiko 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 lens, M.Zuiko PRO 12-40mm f/2.8 ED
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Accessories:
Nikon SB-900 Speedlight, Nikon GP-1 GPS, Nikon ME-1 Microphone, Eye-Fi Wireless Cards, Atomos Ninja-2 External HDMI Video Recorder, Atomos Samurai Blade External Video Recorder,Manfrotto Tripods, Markins M-10 Ballhead, Lots of camera bags, Metz 24 AF-1 Flash, Olympus FL-600R Flash, Olympus HLD-7 Battery Grip
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Member of:

Nikon Professional Services (NPS), Professional Photographers of America (PPA), North American Nature Photography Association (NANPA), Founding Member of Nikonians Writers' Guild (www.Nikonians.org)
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#20 Gigi

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Posted 13 November 2011 - 09:42 AM

Thanks Darrell, since I am a new user of a DSLR camera and also a new member on this site, this will help me a lot. Ginette

#21 Bill16

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Posted 08 July 2013 - 07:12 AM

I also wish to thank you. Though this is all still a bit Greek to me yet, I'm starting to understand. :) Thank you very much. :D
Nikon D3100 with pro vertical battery grip

AF-S NIKKOR 18-55mm 1:3.5-5.6 G NIKON DX
EX+ DIGITAL FULL FRAME NIKON 28-85MM 3.5-4.5 MACRO AF NIKKOR LANDSCAPE WIDE LENS
Nikon AF NIKKOR 70-300mm G Zoom Lens
Nikon Micro-Nikkor 105mm F/4 Macro Lens Non-AI, updated to Ai Film/Digital
+Soligor 28-80mm F3.5-4.5 MC Lens
Nikon series E 50mm 1:1.8 lens

#22 Gary Worrall

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Posted 08 July 2013 - 08:13 AM

Thank you Darrell Much appreciated ....Gary

- I have a photographic memory but never got it developed -


#23 babel

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Posted 28 March 2014 - 08:25 AM

Hello, I am a new user of a digital professional camera, so I need this too much.

Thanks :)



#24 Keith M

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Posted 28 March 2014 - 09:49 AM

I like this. one of those things taught in photography 101 back in the film days.

sadly overlooked by many in this age of auto every thing.

handy as a reminder when I shoot manual.

I'm trying to get myself back into the film era discipline of making every shot count.

printed it and saved it.


"First we have to make you pretty"

 

Pixels are like beans, it doesn't matter how many you put in the pot, it's how well you can cook that counts.


#25 Aladinsane

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Posted 03 September 2014 - 07:15 PM

Thanks for this handy little chart, will help me understand my camera



#26 meddyliol

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Posted 14 October 2014 - 04:03 AM

Thank you very much. Very useful.  :D


Nikon D90

AF-S Nikkor 50mm 1.8D

AF-S Nikkor 18-55 1:3.5 - 5.6G

AF-S Nikkor 55-300mm 1:4.5 - 5.6G

Nikon SB-600 Speedlight





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